Lublin Landscape Parks Unit

LUBLIN LANDSCAPE PARKS UNIT

The landscape park is one of the 10 statutory forms of nature protection in Poland. According to the definition, it includes "protected area due to natural, historical and cultural values and landscape values in order to preserve and popularize these values in conditions of sustainable development." (Art. 16.1 of the Act on Nature Conservation). The first landscape park in Poland (Suwalski) was established in 1976. Currently there are 122 landscape parks in our country, which cover approx. 8% of its area. The Lublin Voivodeship is the third largest in Poland. There are 17 landscape parks covering over 9.5% of its area. The first landscape park (Kazimierski) was established here in 1979. These are the areas of protected landscape, of which there are 17 in the Lublin region (see map), which is administered by the Lublin Landscape Parks Unit (ZLPK).

ZLPK is a voivodship self-governing organizational unit without legal personality. It was established on December 9, 2009. The team operates on the basis of the Lublin Landscape Parks Unit’s Statute. It provides that the area of activity of ZLPK is 17 landscape parks (PK) and 17 landscape protection areas (OChK) located within the borders of the Lubelskie Voivodeship. In total, the area administered by ZLPK covers over 20% of the voivodeship's area. These areas are very diverse: from the hilly and dry Roztocze through the Lublin Upland to the marshy, full of lakes, the Polesie region and the southern Podlasie. Within the boundaries of landscape parks there are also sections of two great rivers: the Vistula and the Bug.

The Unit is managed by the Executive, who has an office in Lublin and there are Out-of-town Centers in Chełm, Zamość, Lubartów, Janów Lubelski and Janów Podlaski. They are managed by managers. The Unit also have an Education and Museum Center in Brzeźno near Chełm and Ecological Education Center in Sobieszyn. 32 people work in the Unit.

OPERATION

Fields of activity of the ZLPK are set out in the Act on Nature Conservation and the Statute. The unit's task is primarily to protect nature on the administered areas. There are active protection activities (suspension of bird boxes, active protection of steppe grasslands). Opinions are issued about investments and activities that may affect the environment (annually from approx. 600 to over 1,300 opinions). The natural and cultural values of landscape parks are documented (altogether approx. 1000 inventory cards per year). An important field of ZLPK’s activity is ecological education. Within its framework, competitions, lectures, workshops, presentations and other forms of active education about nature, its threats and protection are conducted. In total, in the years 2012-2016 about 50,000 people benefited from various forms of ecological education conducted by ZLPK employees. The Unit also participates in a number of events of local, regional and nationwide importance.

The Unit also conducts and supports research activities in its area. ZLPK employees participate in scientific conferences, they also cooperate with Lublin universities: Maria Curie Skłodowska University, the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin and the University of Life Sciences.

As part of popularizing the natural and cultural values of the Lublin landscape parks, information boards are set up. Only in the years 2014-16 74 new information boards were set up and in 2017 it is planned to set another approx. 40 boards.

ZLPK also runs publishing activities. Maps and guidebooks for landscape parks, albums and brochures as well as small publications such as bookmarks, stickers, colouring books, postcards etc. are published. In addition, educational materials and so-called gadgets that are also always educational in nature. These are: notebooks, mugs, keyrings, drawing sets, bags, puzzles, magnets, mascots, etc. In 2016, the game "Landscape parks in the game" was published for the Zamość landscape parks: Szczebrzeszyński, Puszcza Solska, Krasnobrodzki and Południoworoztoczański. This year (2017) the educational game "Wandering around the Bug river Podlasie Gorge" was issued. It is planned to release new games.

To fulfill its tasks, ZLPK cooperates with numerous organizations and institutions, offices, forest districts, schools, etc. Cooperation agreements have been signed with approx. 50 entities. ZLPK also conducts international cooperation.

List of Lublin Landscape Parks:

Chełmski Landscape Park

Kazimierski Landscape Park

Kozłowiecki Landscape Park

Krasnobrodzki Landscape Park

Krzczonowski Landscape Park

Nadwieprzański Landscape Park

"Lasy Janowskie" Landscape Park

"Podlaski Przełom Bugu" Landscape Park

"Pojezierze Łęczyńskie" Landscape Park

Puszcza Solska Landscape Park

Poleski Landscape Park

Południoworoztoczański Landscape Park

Skierbieszowski Landscape Park

Sobiborski Landscape Park

Strzelecki Landscape Park

Szczebrzeszyński Landscape Park

Wrzelowiecki Landscape Park

Education and Museum Centrer in Brzeźno

Ecological Education Centrer in Sobieszyn

Chełmski Park Krajobrazowy

Chełmski Landscape Park was established in 1983 to protect large forest complexes near Żalin, Czułczyce and Sawin as well as meadows and peat bogs. The most interesting forest communities include thermophilous oak forests with thermophilic groundcover and birch-alder swamp forests.

Chełmski Landscape Park is situated on the border of two mesoregions: Obniżenie Dubieńskie and Pagóry Chełmskie, included in the macroregion of Polesie Wołyńskie. The peat plains dominate in the area of Obniżenie Dubieńskie. They form a monotonous surface at 170-175 m above sea level. Above them (at 175-178 m above sea level) there are lake terraces varied with karst forms and no-outflow land depressions. The main elements of Pagóry Chełmskie are forms of glacial origin (moraine uplands with height of 215-225 m above sea level and moraine hills) and fluvioglacial forms (outwash sand plains and kame terraces).

There are four nature reserves in the Park. One of them is a forest type reserve, "Bachus", which protects a fragment of the forest with old–growth pedunculate oak and Scots pine, with high density of sinkholes - small no-outflow waterbanks with a depth of up to 1 m. The remaining ones are peat bog reserves: "Brzeźno", "Bagno Serebryskie" and "Roskosz". It is the carbonate peat bogs that are a great natural feature of the Park. They were created in the land depression, on shallow deposits of the writing chalk. The swelling chalk forms a poorly permeable layer and is the main source of calcium carbonate for the peat vegetation. These bogs are characterized by a high fertility and pH 6.3-7.2. As a result of water supply from the rainfall or runoff from surrounding hills, they are classified as the low peatlands. The reaction of peat bogs, the occurrence of small chalk ridges among them called “grądziki”, and the location at the interface between the two climatic zones, make peat bogs unique in Europe. This is evidenced by the presence of an impressive number of species next to each other: over 160 species of birds, about 800 species of day butterflies, about 400 species of vascular plants and the majority of amphibians and reptiles found in Poland.

The carbonate peat bogs are a unique habitat in Poland and are characterized by an extraordinary richness of flora and fauna. The dominant plant is the swamp sawgrass (Cladium mariscus), forming a reed bed, and it is the basic peat-forming element. The field structure of the swamp sawgrass is unique in the country, as in other regions of Poland it occurs almost exclusively as a reed vegetation that surrounds the lakes, whereas in Chełmski Landscape Park it creates the largest areas of compact occurrence in the country. There are many rare species of plants in the carbonate peat bogs, among others: Ligularia sibirica, Buxbaum’s sedge (Carex buxbaumii), Davall’s sedge (Carex Davalliana), Schoenus ferrugineus, globeflower (Trollius europaeus), two-colored butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris ssp. bicolor) , Nymphaea candida. Noteworthy is the occurrence of Senecio macrophyllus population and Ophrys insectifera, which, apart from the carbonate peat bogs, have only two sites in Poland.

On xerothermic grasslands adjacent to peatlands, located on the chalk ridges - "grądziki", there are thermophilic plants: Inula ensifolia, snowdrop anemone (Anemone silvestris), large-flowered selfheal (Prunella grandiflora), Linum flavum. On the other hand, in the meadows exploited extensively, we can meet several species of orchids. The carbonate peat bogs are also an excellent habitat for many rare species of butterflies: Danube clouded yellow (Colias myrmidone), eastern pale clouded yellow (Colias erate), violet copper (Lycaena helle), lesser purple emperor (Apatura ilia), purple emperor (Apaturia iris), marsh fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia). In Chełmski Landscape Park there are also threatened butterfly species: Coenonympha tullia and large copper (Lycaena dispar).

Among the peat bogs we meet rare species - one of them is the aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) - a species threatened with extinction in the world. The bird has been showing population stability for many years in the mentioned peat bogs. We will also find here the habitats of the Montagu’s and marsh harrier (Circus pygargus, Circus aeruginosus), less often Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) and the great snipe (Gallinago media). In wet meadows, among high vegetation, we can hear the corncrake (Crex crex).

Chełmski Landscape Park is located at the intersection of former trade routes from Ruthenia to Poland and from Lithuania to Małopolska Region. It is a neighbourhood with a rich but turbulent history. The prehistoric times are indicated by early medieval gords: Sajczyce, Czułczyce, Busówna, Tarnów, Stołpa and Chylin. The stone residential-sacral-defensive tower in Stołpa from the 10th and 11th centuries is extremely interesting; it is the oldest building on the right side of the Vistula river. The later architecture, mainly from the 18th and 19th centuries, is represented by palaces and courtyards in Srebrzyszcze, Stawa and Ruda-Huta, a late baroque church in Sawin, a wooden church in Czułczyce, a church in Świerże and a Polish-Catholic church in Ruda-Huta. The forest settlement in Stańków is also noteworthy, with a forester's lodge, an inactive seed separator and the former summer residence of the Orthodox bishops. Numerous insurrectional, partisan and military graves bear witness to the struggles that have been waged in these territories to regain Poland's independence.

When visiting Chełmski Landscape Park, it is worth taking advantage of the marked walking trails of the "Szlak Pojezierny Południowy" (southern lakeland trail) and the "Szlak bagien i moczarów” (wetlands trail). The educational paths such as "Bachus", "Bagno Serebryskie" and "Stańków" are also designated here. The north-eastern edge of the park is a popular bike route along the Bug river.

Kazimierski Landscape Park

Kazimierski Landscape Park is the oldest landscape park in the Lublin voivodeship. It was established in 1979 to protect the unique natural, cultural and landscape values of Kazimierz Dolny, Nałęczów and Puławy area. Kazimierski Landscape Park has become the consummation of scientists and tour guards’ efforts through many years

The geological structure of the Park is extremely interesting. Its base is made of limestone formed in a warm, shallow sea during the Cretaceous period. Dead sea animals falling to the bottom underwent transformations. Traces of life from this period are found today in the quarries in the Park as preserved fragments of organisms or their sections. The landscape of the Park was also affected by glaciation, and above all by large amounts of loess dust brought by the wind, which in places creates more than 30-meter thick cover. Extremely erosive loess fragments were cut by innumerable gullies.

In the area of Płaskowyż Nałęczowski (Nałęczów Plateau), i.e. in the loess and forestless parts of the Park, the transformation process of the landscape continues and is one of its most characteristic features. The network of gullies reached in the western part of the Plateau a record-breaking density of 11 km/km2. The most attractive forms of erosion are deep, steep ravines and anthropogenic forms – “głębocznice” which were created by gradual deepening of dirt roads. Landform of Równina Bełżycka (Bełżycka Plain) is much more monotonous, and the landscape is diversified only by sand dunes, often overgrown with pine stands. The most distinctive feature of the landscape is the steep edge with a tectonic origin, with a height of over 90m. It offers extensive views of the completely flat Kotlina Chodelska. Małopolski Przełom Wisły has a special landscape qualities. On the Podgórz - Janowiec line, the Vistula river valley narrows to a steep "canyon" with a width of just over 1km. The right loess slope of the valley rises to 90 meters above the river level, the left one without loess is lower, but also steep. The Vistula river on this episode has preserved the features of a large, wild river.

Due to the wide variety of the terrain in Kazimierski Landscape Park there is a diverse water, rushes, peatbog, meadow, forest, grass and synanthropic vegetation. The main floristic values of the Park are related to the thermophilic vegetation of limestone and loess slopes in the Vistula river and Bystra river valleys, which are part of the xerothermic grasslands. We can find here many rare and protected plants including: dwarf cherry (Prunus fruticosa), honeysuckle (Lonicera caprifolium), old man's beard (Clematis vitalba), wild privet (Ligustrum vulgare), Daphne mezereum, European Michaelmas daisy (Aster amellus), lady's-slipper orchid (Cypripedium calceolus), snowdrop anemone (Anemone sylvestris), pheasant's eye (Adonis vernalis), Stipa capillata, star gentian (Gentiana cruciata), Scorzonera purpurea, golden flax (Linum flavum), Inula ensifolia, stool iris (Iris Aphylla).

Xerothermic grasslands are a perfect habitat for many insects. The chequered blue butterfly (Scolitantides orion) and two species of bugs are the endemic species found only near Kazimierz Dolny. On the other hand, the wild Vistula river valley, and above all sandbanks and islands are dream breeding habitats for birds.

An especially attractive place for bird watching is the Vistula river valley. You can see here, among others: common tern (Sterna hirundo) and little tern (terna albifrons), little river plover (Charadrius dubius) and common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), common gull (Larus canus), black-headed gull (Chroicocephalus ridibundus), Mediterranean gull (Ichthyaetus melanocephalus) and Caspian gull (Larus cahinnas). An interesting fact is that in the "Krowia Wyspa" reserve near Mięćmierz, nesting of the oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus) was found. It is a rare breeding bird, occurring mainly on the coast.

In order to protect specific fauna, landscape, geological and floristic values, three reserves were established in the Park: "Krowia Wyspa", "Skarpa Dobrska", "Łęg na Kępie".

Kazimierski Landscape Park has also unique cultural values. There is a small town I the center of the Park- Kazimierz Dolny, recognized along with the surrounding landscape as a historic complex with an international rank and as the Monument of History. The most valuable of the monuments in Kazimierz are: the splendid ruins of Kazimierz Wielki’s castle, the parish church from the 16th century, and the monastery complex of the Franciscans - Reformers from the second half of the 17th century, renaissance houses of the Celej and the Przybył families and a group of granaries from the 16th – 17th century. Apart from Kazimierz, the following are worth attention: the Firlej family’s castle (16th century) and the historic urban layout with four-sided market and church in Janowiec, baroque-classicistic (18th century) church in Góra Puławska, late-baroque Małachowski Palace in Nałęczów, eighteenth and nineteenth-century complex of sanatorium buildings in Nałęczów, palace and park complexes in Celejów, Kębło, Czesławice, manor-park complexes in Wyląg, Drzewce, Karczmiska and Antopol, as well as monuments of rural wooden architecture in Męćmierz and Rogów and an open-air museum in Janowiec.

Kazimierz Dolny has been in the canon of the most beautiful and popular places in Poland for many years. Excessive number of tourists in the town, especially during the summer, can be oppresive. It is worth taking advantage of the rich tourist infrastructure such as hiking, cycling and walking paths. Using them, we will reach the most charming places of the unusual Kazimierski Landscape Park.

Kozłowiecki Landscape Park

Kozłowiecki Landscape Park was established in 1990 to protect the largest forest complex near Lublin. The Park has a typical forest character. It includes a compact complex of Lasy Kozłowieckie, very valuable due to the large diversity of stand and fragments with a composition similar to natural.

In the Park, we will find pine and oak forests, periodically flooded humid and marshy coniferous forests, and small areas of alder and willow-poplar riparian forests growing on the banks of the Minina and Krzywa rivers. The most valuable ones are solid oak stands with the participation of sessile oak. Particularly impressive oaks are protected in the "Kozie Góry" reserve. In addition, in the Park’s area there are also mid-forest meadows, ponds, swamps and small forest and agricultural settlements.

Among the flora of Kozłowiecki Landscape Park, particular attention should be paid to protected species, among others: adder's-tongue (Ophioglossum vulgatum), February daphne (Daphne mezereum), Lilium martagon, European columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris), common twayblade (Listera ovata), lesser butterfly-orchid (Platanthera bifolia), bird's-nest orchid, (Neottia nidus-avis) and common ivy (Hedera helix). On few fragments of high and transitional peat bogs, there are, among others: marsh tea (Ledum palustre), stiff clubmoss (Lycopodium annotinum), bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia), early marsh orchid (Dactylorhiza incarnata) and western marsh orchid (Dactylorhiza majalis), marsh helleborine (Epipactis palustris).

The presence of old hollow trees and breeding ponds in the Park makes the animal world in this area very diversified. There are numerous hole-nesting birds here, including: black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius), middle spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos medius), hoopoe (Upupa epops), collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis) and European pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). An interesting fact is the almost twofold increase in the number of tawny owl (Strix aluco), the largest owl in Poland, in Lasy Kozłowieckie, compared to the 90’s of the twentieth century. Probably the reason for the improvement in the population of this owl is the increase in the age of the stand and the leaving of old hollow trees. There are also black stork (Ciconia nigra) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) in the Park - species that due to the limited occurrence are under zone protection. You can often observe buzzards (Buteo buteo) circling above forests and meadows - the most common European bird of falconiformes. In the mid-forest ponds and in the ponds in Samoklęski – the buffer zone of the Park, we can observe wetland birds, among others: black necked grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), greylag geese (Anser anser) and hear the characteristic voice of water rail (Rallus aquaticus).

Lasy Kozłowieckie is also a place where you can find deer, roe deer, wild boar and fallow deer. The latter were brought to the park in 1962. This is not our native species - it naturally occurs in Asia Minor, and was imported to Poland as wild game. In more humid forests you can also find elks - the largest representatives of the deer family.

In the Minina river valley, there is a very few European pond turtles (Emys orbicularis) - the only turtle living naturally in our country. In Poland, there are only four areas where a larger number of this reptile was recorded. Its head and neck, speckled with yellow spots, resemble duckweed, growing in ponds and mid-forest ponds, thanks to which it perfectly adapts to the surroundings where it occurs and is hardly visible from a distance.

In the Park's buffer zone you can admire one of the most valuable cultural monuments - a late-Baroque palace and park complex in Kozłówka with a magnificent palace, a guardhouse, a theatre, a coach house and stables.

The palace in Kozłówka was founded in the first half of the 18th century by Jakub Fontana. The palace complex is surrounded by a beautiful park with old-growth forest trees, some of which were considered nature monuments. As an exceptionally valuable monument with a special historical, scientific and artistic value, which is of great importance for the history of Poland, it was recognized by the President of the Republic of Poland's Monument of History. Another interesting manor-and-park complexes from the first half of the 19th century can be found in Krasienin, Nasutów and Samoklęski. the old wooden architecture in the villages of: Dąbrówka, Kamionka, Nowy Staw and Nowodwór is noteworthy. Worth seeing is a hunting lodge located in Stary Tartak, as well as a nearby monumental English oak and a monument dedicated to the January insurgents erected in the place of the skirmish.

Kozłowiecki Landscape Park is a popular place for bicycle trips for the inhabitants of Lublin and Lubartów. The cycling tourism is facilitated by a dense network of bicycle routes and asphalt roads excluded from car traffic. The mid-forest ponds are famous among fishermen. In the autumn, Lasy Kozłowieckie is an ideal place for mushrooming.

Krasnobrodzki Park Krajobrazowy

Established in 1988, Krasnobrodzki Landscape Park covers a range of the highest hills of Roztocze Środkowe region, exceeding the altitude of 350 m above sea level and a part of the upper Wieprz river valley. In the north-west, the Park borders with the buffer zone of Roztoczański National Park, while in the south the Park's buffer zone meets Puszcza Solska Landscape Park.

The biggest river of quite water-scarce Park, is the Wieprz river. The river is accompanied by beautiful contact springs. The most picturesque and most efficient springs - in Hutki, Husiny and near the "Na Wodzie" chapel - are protected as nature monuments. In the Wieprz river, apart from numerous species of fish, you can also find crayfish.

The former geological activity in the Krasnobrodzki Landscape Park is evidenced by an extremely picturesque and varied landscape. Rock outcrops in the form of monadnocks are characteristic on the peaks of Roztocze hills. The largest concentrations of rocks are located on the Wapielnia hill (387m above sea level) - the highest hill of Roztocze Środkowe - and on the Kamień hill (348m above sea level).

In the Wieprz river valley you can find sandy dunes with a parabolic shape, reaching a height even up to 20m and length to 1.5km. Another interesting form of the Park's landform are dry valleys that form two systems: one of them is located near Krasnobród and is connected with the Wieprz river valley, while the other occurs in the south-western part of the Park and is connected with the upper Sopot river valley. In turn, deep gullies are formed in the areas covered by loess. They are located near the village of Zielone.

Forests cover over 60% of the Park's area. Despite the forest management that has been carried out for centuries, they have preserved in many places the character of the primary forest. The dominant group is fresh coniferous forest, in which the main forest-forming species is pine. It is accompanied by fir forests and Carpathian beech forest. You can also meet here alders, oak-hornbeam forests, as well as valuable peat bogs and xerothermic plant communities. The most valuable forest communities are protected as nature reserves: "Św. Roch "and" Zarośle".

The vegetation of the Park contains elements characteristic for the Roztocze region flora, characterized by the presence of mountain and xerothermic species. The rare mountain plants include, among others: fir clubmoss (Huperzia selago), hard-fern (Blechnum spicant) dryopteris: expansa and dilatata, and Cardamine glanduligera. The most interesting xerothermic plants are: gentiana, sticky sage (Salvia glutinosa) and wall germander (Teucrium chamaedrys). The presence of calciphytic ferns is also worth attention: maidenhair spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes) and wall-rue (Asplenium ruta-muraria). Rare species are also found in the group of peat vegetation. These include: dwarf birch (Betula humilis), swamp willow (Salix myrtilloides), inundated clubmoss (Lycopodiella inundata) and string sedge (Carex chordorrhiza). Among the others, rarer species, it is worth mentioning: twinflower (Linnaea borealis), snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis), as well as several species of orchids.

The fauna of the Park is poorly recognized. Forest hoofed mammals are found here: deer, roe deer and wild boar. The predatory mammals represent, among others: badger, ermine, raccoon dog, forest marten, house marten, weasel and polecat. There were also found nesting of rare species of birds such as the lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina), black stork (Ciconia nigra) and grey wagtail (Motacilla cinerea).

Valuable monuments in the Park are concentrated in Krasnobród and its close neighborhood. In the part of this town, called Podzamek, there is the Leszczyńscy palace from the 17th century, surrounded by a large fence, expanded in the 19th century.

In Podklasztor, on the other hand, there is a Baroque church (16th century) with a miraculous painting of the Mother of God and Kalwaria Krasnobrodzka, the Dominican Monastery, now a parish museum, and a baroque chapels complex, including a wooden chapel on a miraculous, cultic spring. The Chapel of St. Roch, built in the Zakopane style and picturesquely fitting into the Valley of St. Roch, is also very interesting.

Tourist traffic in the Park concentrates mainly around Krasnobród, a holiday and health resort. There is a sanatorium, a dozen resorts, a number of guesthouses and private accommodation, campsites, youth hostels, a horse riding center and a ski lift with a downhill trail at Chełmowa Góra. In the summer, a popular place for water sports is the reservoir in Krasnobród. Marked hiking, cycling and walking trails lead through the Park.

Krzczonowski Landscape Park

Krzczonowski Landscape Park was established in 1990 to protect the characteristic landscape of the central part of the Lublin Upland. Wavy hills, deeply cut river valleys and erosional gullies are extremely scenic landscapes of this area. Hills in the area of the Park and its buffer zone are built from solid, resistant to erosion silica sandstone and create typical monadnocks. The highest elevation is Boży Dar, height - 306.7m above sea level, located in the Park's buffer zone, while the best viewing point, from which a beautiful landscape can be seen, is Szabałowa Góra with a height of 285m above sea level.

The specificity of Krzczonowski Landscape Park is the fact that - along with its buffer zone - it is the most important spring area in the Lublin region. There are as many as 45 effective springs here, including a dozen or so group springs, consisting of 4 to 19 outflows. Springs are located in the valleys of the Giełczew, Radomirka and Olszanka rivers. These are the main watercourses of the Park, their valleys have largely preserved their natural character and have a high natural value in the strongly altered agricultural landscape.

The largest area in the Park, up to 70%, is arable land, while forest complexes are only 25%.

A very important element of Krzczonowski Landscape Park are fragments of surviving areas of former forests, covering a significant part of the Lublin Upland. Particularly valuable here is the 200-year-old stand of pedunculate oak with the participation of beech, which is located on the north-eastern border of its natural range. The forests of the Park form two complexes. The first of them is Las Chmielowski in the north-western region of the Park, with two nature reserves "Chmiel" and "Olszanka" being simultaneously habitat sites of Natura 2000, stretching between the villages of Piotrkówek and Majdan Policki. The second, smaller, is Las Królewski, divided into several smaller fragments, located in the central part of the Park between the Radomirka and Giełczew river valleys. The "Las Królewski" nature reserve was created in this complex. In the Park's forests, deciduous tree stands predominate with the share of hornbeam, lime and oak, and mixed and thermophilous mixed forests. We will find here rare plants, among others: lesser butterfly-orchid (Platanthera bifolia), greater butterfly-orchid (Platanthera chlorantha), Lilium martagon, Ranunculus cassubicus, Daphne mezereum, Melittis melissophyllum. In the biggest nature reserve of the Park – “Las Królewski”, valuable areas of xerothermic thickets and grasslands are preserved, with distinctive, rare vegetation: Campanula sibirica, dwarf sedge (Carex humilis), Cirsium pannonicum, Helianthemum nummularium, Inula ensifolia, Anthericum ramosum. In addition, there is Hacquetia epipactis in the reserve, very rare in Poland.

Equally valuable habitat in the Giełczew and Radomirka river valleys are riparian and alder forests. In water meadows you can find rare species of plants: marsh gentian (Gentiana pneumonanthe), adder's-tongue (Ophioglossum vulgatum), moonwort (Botrychium lunaria), butterbur (Petasites hybridus), Veratrum lobelianum, globe-flower (Trollius europaeus).

Among the fungi we can find interesting species in the Park, among others Sparassis crispa and Phallus impudicus.

Variety of fauna is conditioned by a mosaic of biotopes. In the spring areas and streams there is Gammarus pulex – a crustacean of clean waters. On the other hand, extensively used meadows are an excellent habitat for many butterfly species, the presence of which is associated with the presence of certain host plants. We will meet here, among others: Old World swallowtail (Papilio machaon), whose caterpillars feed mainly on umbelliferous plants, purple emperor (Apatura iris) - the basic host plant is goat willow (Salix caprea) and common blue (Polyommatus icarus), which occurrence is dependent on the presence of small legumes. In wetlands there are such species of amphibians as: European tree frog (Hyla arborea), European fire-bellied toad (Bombina bombina) and common toad (Bufo bufo). The avifauna of Krzczonowski Landscape Park varies depending on the habitat: in the forests we will meet tits (Paridae), creepers (Certhia familiaris), thrushes (Turdus philomelos), flycatchers (Muscicapa striata), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), very few grey-headed woodpeckers (Picus canus) and falconiformes, mainly hawks (Accipiter gentilis), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus) and Eurasian hobby (Falco subbuteo); on wet meadows – corncrake (Crex crex), a bird of a secretive way of life, a species endangered on a global scale. The presence of clean rivers and sandy slopes makes the kingfisher (Alcedo atthis) nesting here - a bird that hunts for fish only in clear, free-flowing waters. On the other hand, on the ponds in Częstoborowice, you can observe, among others: great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus), little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), common pochard (Aythya ferina), tufted duck (Aythya fuligula), mute swan (Cygnus olor), coots (Fulica atra) and moorhens (Gallinula chloropus). Extensive fields are a nesting place for many species of birds, among others skylark (Alauda arvensis), whinchat (Saxicola rubetra), yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella) and meadowlark (Emberiza calandra). Buzzard (Buteo buteo) and kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) hunt here for small rodents. Among the mammals: moose (Alces alces), otter (Lutra lutra), beaver (Castor fiber) and bats: barbstelle and brown long-eared bat (Plecotus auritus) deserve attention.

In the nature-landscape complex "Kamienna Góra" very rare Lublinit mineral was found in gaize excavations. It is a needle-shaped variety of calcite, appearing in the form of a white felt. Nearby, on the xerothermic grasslands, there is the only site of stemless carline thistle (Carlina acaulis) in the Park.

Cultural values of the Park are, first of all, monuments of sacred architecture and manor-park complexes. Historic churches from 17th century are in Krzczonów and Częstoborowice; in Sobieska Wola and Pilaszkowice manor-park complexes are connected with King John III Sobieski and his wife Marysieńka. The most imposing park can be admired in Rybczewice, where you can find 600 trees representing 16 different species. Many trees from the parks have been recognized as natural monuments. In addition, in Krzczonów, Wygnanowice and Częstoborowice water mills from the beginning of the 20th century are worth seeing; they are built on the Giełczew and Radomirka rivers. The park also has a walking and educational path as well as a bicycle trail.

Nadwieprzański Landscape Park

Nadwieprzański Landscape Park was established in 1990. It is located in the central part of the Lubelskie Voivodship on the Wieprz River middle section, between two great physiographic units: Małopolska Upland and West-Russian Lowland. It is at the same time an accepted physical and geographical boundary between Eastern and Western Europe.

The park together with the buffer zone is characterized by a distinct diversity of landscape types. In the southern part, the Wieprz river valley is wide and strongly swampy. In the northern part, on the section between Ciechanki Krzesimowskie and Kijany villages, it is narrow, winding and has a water gap character through the hills of Lublin Upland, and its edges rise up to over 20 meters and are cut into ravines and gullies.

Within the Park’s area there are the Wieprz river’s tributaries, the left-bank ones: Giełczew and Stoki, and the right-bank tributaries: Białka, Mogielnica and Świnka.

The landscape of the Park is dominated by forests, covering almost 42% of its area, as well as meadows and pastures, occupying 26% of the area.

The highest natural value is the Wieprz river valley with meanders as well as oxbow lakes and numerous, located within its area, extensive wetlands, wet meadows, peat bogs and peat pits, where there are valuable communities of peat, rush and water vegetation, as well as riparian and alder forests. On the sunny slopes of the Wieprz river valley, in the northern part of the Park, there are xerothermic grasslands with rare plant communities. There are many rare species in flora. Among the aquatic plants, it is worth mentioning the following: spotless watermeal (Wolffia arrhiza), floating watermoss (Salvinia natans), fat duckweed (Lemna gibba), bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris), white water lily (Nymphaea alba) and Chara, forming underwater meadows. Among peat plants, a peculiarity is dwarf birch (Betula humilis), found in the Park's buffer zone, round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia) and plants of wet meadows: Siberian iris (Iris sibirica) and western-marsh orchid (Dactylorhiza majalis). The xerothermic plants found in the area are: stemless carline thistle (Carlina acaulis), pheasant's eye (Adonis vernalis), snowdrop anemone (Anemone sylvestris), Marschall’s wild thyme (Thymus marschallianus), Allium angulosum, Eryngium and wall germander (Teucrium chamaedrys). In the Park’s forest groundcover you can find such species as: common polypody (Polypodium vulgare), martagon (Lilium martagon), several species of orchids and climber – birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis).

Large areas of wetlands conduce to nesting of numerous species of wetland birds. The rare species that occur in the area of the Park include: western marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), butterbump (Botaurus stellaris), corncrake (Crex crex), black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa), redshank (Tringa totanus), black tern (Chlidonias niger), kingfisher (Alcedo atthis), bluethroat (Luscinia svecica), and rosefinch (Erythrina erythrinus). A peculiarity is the occurrence of the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis).

There are over 20 natural monuments in the Park. They are mainly old trees in the manor parks. Particularly noteworthy are the remains of the huge Sobieski Lime in the castle park in Zawieprzyce, considered a natural monument in 1956. At the time, the lime tree had over 700 cm of circumference.

In almost every town in Nadwieprzański Landscape Park there are valuable monuments. In Łęczna for instance a Renaissance synagogue from 1648, remains of a castle from the 15th century, a church complex from the first half of the 18th century and a medieval spatial layout with three markets. Baroque churches are located in: Biskupice, Dorohucza and Kijany, while in Jaszczów there is a historic Arian church (16th century). In Zawieprzyce there is a large, ruined castle and a manor complex (from 17th – 19th centuries) with a picturesque park. The most interesting manor and palace complexes surrounded by parks have been preserved in Jaszczów, Milejów, Kijany, Łęczna, Łysołaje and Łańcuchów. In the villages located on the Wieprz river there are also many monuments of wooden rural architecture.

Through the buffer zone runs a red tourist trail, two educational paths and a long-distance bicycle trail from Lublin to Wola Uhruska. The Wieprz river episode located in the Park is a popular kayaking trail valued by water sportsmen.

Lasy Janowskie Landscape Park

Lasy Janowskie, being the central part of the Solska Forest, are one of the largest forest complexes in Poland with outstanding natural and landscape features. To protect and maintain these values, in 1984 Lasy Janowskie Landscape Park was established. The park is an important element of the landscape protection area, including the Solska and Sandomierska Forest as well as the valleys of San and Vistula rivers.

Lasy Janowskie Landscape Park is an area of approx. 40 000 hectares. The size of these inaccessible forests with the preserved old age tree stand determines their outstanding natural value. There is mainly pine with island fragments of fir forests. Among the various forest habitats, from dry forests to swamps, fragments of the primeval forest character have survived.

The forest landscape is diversified by river valleys, dune embankments forming elevations, ponds complexes, lakes, swamps and mid-forest bogs. There are more than 130 plants rare in Poland, of which 30 are under species protection. The complex of water vegetation and rush vegetation is of significant value.

Lasy Janowskie abounds in natural, little-transformed habitats, which makes the fauna of these forests extremely rich. Among the 130 species of birds, rare species are represented, among others osprey (Pandion haliaetus), greater spotted eagle (Clanga clanga), lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), black stork (Ciconia nigra), crane (Grus grus). Noteworthy is the occurrence of the capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus) in Lasy Janowskie - a species endangered with extinction, under zonal protection. Wolves, elks, deer, wild boars and many other species of mammals find great conditions to live here.

Six reserves have been established within the boundaries of the landscape park, where the most valuable and rare plant communities, tree stands, bird breeding sites and wildlife sites are protected in a special way.

A place to live for the Biłgoraj horse was established near Szklarnia village. Horses, descendants of tarpans, stay in the open area throughout the year as their ancestors, and are fed only during the winter. A few horses separated from the herd were designated for recreational purposes. Their mild temperament, small height and friendly attitude towards people make them possible to use as a part of hippotherapy.

In Lasy Janowskie Landscape Park there are villages and mid-forest settlements where you can find examples of old wooden residential buildings, old chapels and characteristic roadside crosses. The history of this land, with relatively small population, is extremely rich and turbulent.

The forests were a place of refuge and fight for many insurgent and partisan units. Particularly worth mentioning is the battle on Porytowe Wzgórze, which took place on June 14, 1944. German troops clashed with the Polish and Soviet partisans in the forest. The battle is considered the biggest partisan battle that took place in Poland. A reminder of the tragic years of wars that have left their mark on the land of Janów Lubelski, are monuments and war graves in places of battles and fights and overgrowing places after the once existing forest settlements.

The beautiful landscape and natural values of Lasy Janowskie make this area extremely attractive for hiking, cycling, nature tourism, and in winter for cross-country and trace skiing thanks to numerous hiking and cycling trails, educational paths and a small tourist infrastructure: sheds, bus stops and forest car parks. Forest river - Bukowa river is a highly-valued canoe trail.

Podlaski Przełom Bugu Landscape Park

"Podlaski Przełom Bugu" Landscape Park, established in 1994, is designed to preserve, in the natural state, the most valuable parts of the left bank of the Bug River in terms of nature, landscape and culture. Located in the Lublin and Masovian voivodeships, the Park covers a fragment of the Bug river valley from the Toczna River to the mouth of the Krzna River in Neple town. The length of the Park in a straight line is about 65 km, the average width in the northern part is 6 km, and in the southern 3-5 km.

The main landscape and natural value of the Park is the meandering Bug river. The valley of wild and unregulated river is characterized by a great diversity of habitats. Near the Bug we will see sandbanks and sandy dunes, xerothermic grasslands, mowed meadows and the entire spectrum of forest areas including alder forests, riparian forests, as well as bog and water communities. The diversity of park habitats affects the richness of the plant world. There are over 760 species of vascular plants found in the Park. The most valuable representatives of the park's flora include: Martagon lily, Siberian iris (Iris sibirica), Gladiolus imbricatus, Jovibarba sobolifera, globe-flower (Trollius europaeus), goat’s beard (Aruncus dioicus), European columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris), Lycopods, twinflower (Linnaea borealis), lesser butterfly-orchid (Platanthera bifolia) and early marsh-orchid (Dactylorhiza incarnata).

The animal world is also rich, and above all, the avifauna. 141 species of birds were observed in the Park. One of the most characteristic elements of the "Podlaski Przełom Bugu" Landscape Park is the riverside escarpments, which are an excellent breeding place for birds nesting in sandy dens: bank swallow (Riparia riparia) and kingfisher (Alcedo atthis). On the beaches and sandy islands nest among others: ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula) and little ringed plover (Charadrius dubius), common sandpiper (Actitis hypoleucos), little tern (Sternula albifrons) and common tern (Sterna hirundo), and common gull (Larus canus). Ringed plover, which has a small population, is a very interesting bird. It is characterized by interesting defensive behaviour at the moment of threat to the brood: when a predator appears, the bird misleads him away from the nest pretending to be sick, and when it comes to defending eggs - it pretends to sit in other places to confuse the predator.

The most valuable place in terms of nature are willow-poplar forests. This very spacious, rich in food habitat is a place of breeding and shelter, among others for: river warbler (Locustella fluviatilis), Eurasian penduline, rosefinch (Erythrina erythrinus), hoopoe (Upupa epops), wryneck (Jynx torquilla). It is worth mentioning that riparian forests have a very important anti-flood function. During the flood, they reduce the speed of the flood wave, reduce lateral erosion of the rivers and the amount of carried soil during floods, and are a natural sewage treatment plant, because the plants growing in this area quickly absorb mineralized pollutants. Another important habitat for the breeding avifauna of the Bug River valley are periodically flooded, wet meadows. The attractiveness of these places for birds is determined by their extensive use. We can mainly see Charadriidae: black-tailed godwit, (Limosa limosa), lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), common redshank (Tringa totanus) and common snipe (Gallinago gallinago), which, probing soft ground with the beak, looks for small invertebrates. There are also: garganey (Anas querquedula), black tern (Chlidonias niger) and Montagu's harrier (Circus pygargus). On the other hand, fish ponds and oxbows are a place, where mainly occur birds from the family of Gallinule, adapted to live in thickets: spotted crake (Porzana porzana), little crake (Porzana parva), water rail (Rallus aquaticus) and a moorhen (gallinula chloropus). On the open surface of the water we can easily observe: red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena), mute swan (Cygnus olor), common pochard (Aythya ferina), tafted duck (Aythya fuligula) and mallard duck (Anas platyrhynchos). In large forest complexes with old age forest stands you can observe the largest owl in Poland - eagle owl (Bubo bubo) and many falconiformes: lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina), honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), hawk (Accipiter gentilis), sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus), buzzard (buteo buteo). In addition, you can find here black stork (Ciconia nigra), nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes), red-breasted flycatcher (Ficedula parva), black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius), middle spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos medius) and stock dove (Columba oenas), which, as the only dove in Europe, nestles in the hollows of old trees. Mammals in the Park represent an otter (Lutra lutra) and beaver (Castor fiber) and a very rare seen wolf. The most endangered species of reptile is European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis), occurring sporadically on some of the oxbow lakes. The rare fish, which is under strict protection, observed in the Bug river, is, among others, white-finned gudgeon (Romanogobio albipinnatus) and Sabanejewia aurata

Particularly valuable natural objects are protected in the form of seven nature reserves, including two ornithological, three forest, one landscape and one floristic.

The most valuable monuments in the Park are located in Janów Podlaski, the former residence of the Łuck and Podlasie bishops. The pride of the settlement is, among others, the baroque collegiate church, the complex of the episcopal castle and the building of the seminary. An outstanding writer of the Enlightenment Age Bishop Adam Naruszewicz was associated with Janów. Interesting monuments are the stable buildings of the first Polish stud farm - the Arabian Horse Stud at Janów Podlaski, established in 1817. in the Wygoda grange.

Southern Podlasie is a place where both Roman Catholic Poles and Ruthenians of the Orthodox or Uniate faith live side by side. Former temples of the Eastern rite, called orthodox churches, can be visited in Stary Bubel, Gnojno, Krzyczew and in Stary Pawłów. In Pratulin, we come across a sanctuary dedicated to the memory of those who died for the faith of the Podlasie Uniates, brought by Saint John Paul II to the dignity of the blessed. An extremely mysterious object is the so-called "Kamienna baba” (Stone woman) in Neple - it is a large stone in the shape of a cross and at least a medieval genesis.

The area of the Park, due to its naturalness, beautiful, varied, calm, clean water and healthy air, create an ideal place for recreation and relaxation for those who want a close contact with nature. In the Bug River villages, it is easy to stay overnight in numerous agritourism farms. The park is best to traverse the Bug River trails - on foot or by bicycle.

"Wild, beautiful, unregulated, surrounded by many oxbow lakes, blooming meadows and mysterious forests, she pulled like a magnet. Here I took my first steps, photographing nature and observing animals in their natural environment (...) Bug is the river of my dreams, when I saw her for the first time years ago, I knew that my life would be related to her. "

Artur Tabor, "Bug. Nadbużańskie Podlasie ", Publishing House Prószyński i S-ka, Warsaw 1999, p. 318.

 

Pojezierze Łęczyńskie Landscape Park

Established in 1990, the Park is located in the western part of Pojezierze Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie (Lakeland) and includes the part of Parczewska Plain. The Park consists of two parts, connected by a common buffer zone. On the eastern side, it is adjacent to Poleski National Park and its buffer zone. Despite frequent artificial drainage in the past and coal mining in the area of the Lublin Coal Basin, the area of the Park is one of the most valuable natural areas of the Lublin voivodship.

Pojezierze Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie is the only lake district in Poland that has not been covered by the extent of the last glaciation. The southern part of the Park is characterized by a flatland, varied only by chalk hills, karst sinkholes, residues of terminal moraines and few dunes. The most characteristic for this enclave are lakes with high and transitional peatbogs adjoining to them, as well as ponds. Lakes differ from each other by the purity of water, shape, trophies and vegetation. There are rare species of plants on peatbog communities: dwarf birch (Betula humilis), downy willow (Salix lapponum), marsh pennywort (Hydrocotyle Vulgaris), Charle’s sceptre (Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum), marsh helleborine (Epipactis palustris), western marsh-orchid (Dactylorhiza majalis) and many others. Particular attention should be paid to the European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis).

Ponds, lakes and peat bogs are a place of occurrence of wetland birds, among others: red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena), butterbump (Botaurus stellaris), and black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa). Eurasian penduline (Remiz pendulinus) nests on the banks of the waters. It builds a characteristic nest on the shape of a ball using willow and poplar inflorescences. Whereas reedbeds are often breeding grounds for western marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus). In order to protect the unique nature for this part of the Park, a floristic and peat reserve "Jezioro Brzeziczno" was created, where the dystrophic lake with the surrounding peat-bog floating mat is protected. An interesting ornithological feature is the nesting of great egret (Ardea alba) on Lake Mytycze in the south-western part of the Park's buffer zone.

The northern part of the Park has a distinctive, definitely forest character. It covers a large part of the compact forests complex of Lasy Parczewskie. These forests consist of a different uevenly aged mosaic of forest communities, where the pine-oak forests and, to a lesser extent, riparian and alder forests prevail. There are many rare species of plants in Lasy Parczewskie groundcover: Eryngium, catchfly (Silene lithuanica), European columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris)., Eastern pasqueflower (Pulsatilla patens), umbellate wintergreen (Chimaphila umbellate), big-flowered foxglove (Digitalis grandiflora), common ivy (Hedera helix), Gladiolus imbricatus, lesser-butterfly orchid (Platanthera bifolia) and others. In Lasy Parczewskie there is the largest Polish owl - eagle owl (Bubo bubo) and the largest of Polish falconiformes - white-tailed eagle (Halieaetus albicilla). In addition, we can find here the lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina) and the black stork (Ciconia nigra). All mentioned species of birds are under special zone protection. Among the mammals, the presence of wolves, which have already settled permanently in Lasy Parczewskie, deserves attention.

The most interesting monuments are located in the Park's buffer zone. In Ostrów Lubelski, founded in 1548 by Jan Tęczyński, a church from the mid-18th century was preserved, built in the late Baroque style and designed by Paweł Fontana. Interesting historical objects are located in Dratów: Russian-style Orthodox church from the late nineteenth century, wooden presbytery, military cemetery from World War I, and a monument from the interwar period commemorating Poland's regaining its independence. In Ostrów, Bójki, Jedlanka, Krasne and several other villages, old wooden rural cottages have been preserved, and with them here and there, rarer - well cranes.

Lakes: Piaseczno, Krasne, Łukcze and Zagłębocze are popular recreational places for the inhabitants of Lublin region. Without a problem, you can find accommodation on them on numerous lodgings or in holiday resorts. The lakes are perfect for water sports (except for motorized). The area is also attractive for walking tourists, and above all for tourists - cyclists. Across the Park area, there are hiking trails and increasingly numerous and popular cycling trails.

Puszcza Solska Landscape Park

Puszcza Solska (Solska Forest) Landscape Park, established in 1988, covers the south-western hills of the edge part of Roztocze Środkowe region and a fragment of the Biłgoraj Plain, also called the Puszczańska Plain.

Forests, as the dominant element of the Park, cover over 85% of its area. The predominant type of forest is fresh pine forest.

A great geological peculiarity of the Park are fault scraps originating from the Carpathians formation. They are clearly visible as picturesque, small waterfalls on the Tanew and Sopot rivers. Locally, they are called “szumy”, “szypoty” or “sopoty”. Around the rivers with knickpoints landscape reserves were created: "Czartowe Pole" and "Nad Tanwią". In the Park (sub-Carpathian part) there is also a forest reserve "Bukowy Las", established to protect the beech-fir forest typical of Roztocze region.

The vegetation of the Solska Forest is varied and extremely interesting. The most interesting protected plants include: ramson (Allium ursinum), limestone oak fern (Gymnocarpium robertianum), five species of Lycopods, the marsh gentian (Gentiana pneumonanthe), three species of sundews, wild rosemary (Ledum palustre), Siberian Iris (Iris sibirica), Martagon lily, several species of orchids, string and mud sedge (Carex chordorrhiza, Carex limosa), yellow waterlily (Nuphar lutea) and sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata).

The fauna of this area is also rich. In cold and clean waters of the Park's streams, there are two valuable fish species, also for fishermen: brown trout (Salmo trutta) and grayling (Thumallus thymallus). The upper sections of the streams have been called "the land of trout and grayling". Avifauna in the Park include endangered species on a global scale: ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca) and corncrake (Crex crex). The most characteristic and at the same time the most valuable forest species include the majority of falconiformes: honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), hawk (Accipiter gentilis), sparrow-hawk (Accipiter nisus), buzzard (Buteo buteo), lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina), hazel grouse (Bonasia bonasia), capercaille (Tetrao urogallus), black grouse (Lyrurus tetrix), crane (Grus grus), woodpeckers: gray-headed (Picus canus), green (Picus viridis), black (Dryocopus martius). Noteworthy is the presence of short-toed eagle (Circaetus gallicus), which is regularly observed in the Solska Forest region. This is an extremely endangered species; in the Lublin region, its population is estimated only for 3 - 4 couples. Among the water-and-mud species, you can find, among others, most species of grebes, bittern, little bittern, all breeding crakes. The group of mammals includes: 4 species of shrews, 7 species of bats, hedgehog, mole, weasel, stoat, common squirrel, European hamster, fat dormouse, dormouse, eliomys, European beaver, wolf, lynx, wild boar, moose, deer, roe deer. More and more frequent observations of the lynx prove that it rebuilds its population, thanks to which the natural deer population selector will be restored. Currently, the Solska Forest is a bird sanctuary of international importance under the Natura 2000 program.

In the Park there are 5 monuments of animate nature - they are single trees and groups of trees, and 2 monuments of inanimate nature: the spring of the Jeleń river and the waterfall on it.

The most interesting historical and cultural objects located in the Park and its surroundings are: the church, synagogue and Jewish cemetery in Józefów, the larch church and Kaplica na Wodzie (Chapel on the Water) in Górecko Kościelne, the ruins of the paper mill in the "Czartowe Pole" reserve, the Łosie family palace in Narol (in Podkarpackie Voivodeship).

Puszcza Solska Landscape Park is often visited by tourists. The starting point for trips are popular holiday resorts: Susiec, Józefów and Narol.

A number of hiking and cycling trails run through the Park - Józefów is even promoted as the "Bicycle Capital of Poland". Educational paths have also been marked out in the Park.

 

Poleski Landscape Park

Poleski Landscape Park was established in 1983 to protect the landscape of the Łęczyńsko-Włodawska Plain, also called Pojezierze Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie. In 1990, Poleski National Park was established, which included more than 60% of the Landscape Park’s area. Therefore, the current landscape park is a part of national park’s buffer zone and consists of 4 small enclaves. The park includes mainly flat areas where the relative heights do not exceed 20 m.

The landscape is characterized by a mosaic of fields, meadows and forests with a large share of wetlands. The biggest water reservoir is Lake Wytyckie. At the end of the 1970s, the lake was surrounded by dikes, and at the beginning of the next decade a reservoir was established here. The remaining lakes are: Karaśne Lake near Urszulin and Gumienko (so-called Owenek). An important element of the Park is the ponds complex in Stary Brus. It includes 23 ponds, the largest of which are: Żabka, Rybitwa, Trościany. They were built in the interwar period in the peatlands. Rivers Włodawka, Piwonia and Bobryk flow through the Park. The whole area is cut by a network of drainage ditches.

The most characteristic plant formations of the Park are peat bogs. They have been creating for thousands of years in the hollows of the area and around the lakes, eventually overgrowing them. The most interesting plants associated with peat bogs are: dwarf birch (Betula humilis), round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), clubmoss (Lycopodiella inundata). There is also a natural monument in the Park: pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) in Załucze Stare (with a circumference of 460 cm).

Among the animals, birds are the best known group in the Park. You can observe species related to the aquatic environment. The most interesting of them are: crane (Grus grus), greylag goose (Anser anser), ferruginous duck (Aythya nyroca), red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena), black-necked grebe (Podiceps nigricollis) and mute swan (Cygnus olor).

Poleski Landscape Park is located in the area where traditions and culture of different nations and religions met with each other. These areas were the place of many battles and fights. Both the January Uprising insurgents and partisans during the Second World War were hiding in the local forests. One of the relics of this period is the monument and the cemetery of the Border Protection Corps fallen soldiers who on October 1, 1939 took part in the battle with the Red Army.

Visiting Poleski Landscape Park is worth connecting with visiting Poleski National Park. The network of hiking and cycling trails allows you to navigate efficiently between neighbouring protected areas. Lake Wytyckie, located in the landscape park, is especially popular among fishermen.

Południoworoztoczański Landscape Park

Południoworoztoczański Landscape Park is located at the border with Ukraine, on the border of the Lublin and Podkarpackie Voivodships. The Podkarpacie part of the Park was established in 1989, part of the Lublin region in 1991.

The park covers the entire Polish part of the southern Roztocze (also known as Eastern Roztocze) with the highest on Polish Roztocze hill of Wielki Dział and Krągły Goraj (both 390 m above sea level). It is an area with a strongly varied landform. The hills are characterized by flattened tops and steep slopes, crisscrossed by numerous dry valleys, gullies and ravines.

About 67% of the Park's area is covered by forests. The ridges and slopes of higher elevations are covered by the Carpathian beech forest communities characteristic of the Roztocze region. In the beechwood groundcover you can meet many rare mountain plants, among others: ramson (Allium ursinum), Cardamine glanduligera, Veronica montana, henbane bell (Scopolia carniolica) or Aposeris. Most of the remaining forests are ectypal pine forests, covering arable lands in the place of former fields and dislodged Ukrainian villages.

The animal world is very rich. Among the avifauna of Południoworoztoczański Landscape Park you can find such species as: lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina), Ural owl (Strix uralensis), black stork (Ciconia nigra), quail (Coturnix coturnix), hoopoe (Upupa epops). Larger mammals represent: elk, deer, wild boar and roe deer. From carnivores, it is worth mentioning: wolf and lynx. the occurrence of several species of rare insects is noteworthy: mantis (Mantis religiosa), purple emperor (Apatura iris), rosalia longicorn (Rosalia alpina) and thermophilic species of ants.

An unusual geological peculiarity of the Park, and also a natural and tourist attraction, are petrified trees located near Siedliska village. These are fossils created in the Tertiary, saturated with silica, while maintaining the shape and form of tree trunks fragments with clearly visible bark and clear growth rings. It is the largest group of this type of remains in Poland. The limestone outcrops are also interesting. The most impressive are: "Diabelski Kamień” (Devil's Stone) near Dahany and “Świątynia Słońca” (Temple of the Sun) - a group of picturesque boulders near Nowiny Horynieckie.

There are interesting monuments within the Park. The most popular of them are wooden Orthodox churches. These areas were settled until 1947 by the Ukrainian nation, which, as part of the post-war infamous action "Wisła", was resettled to the so-called Ziemie Odzyskane. We will meet the most beautiful wooden Orthodox churches in Hrebenne, Prusie and Wola Wielka. In Werchrata and Siedliska, there are interesting brick-built churches in the Russian-Byzantine style. Another souvenir of the former inhabitants of these lands are Brusno stone crosses (the name derives from a stonework center in Brusno). Once standing in the villages, nowadays they are often the only reminder of settlements that have not existed for several dozen years. The remains of Soviet fortifications from World War II are also remarkable: bunkers and concrete antitank barriers are called the "Molotov Line".

Południoworoztoczański Landscape Park is a dream area for qualified tourism: walking and cycling. These areas, however, are wild and isolated, so remember about the map and compass and proper conditioning preparation. Roztocze landscapes will reward you with the toils of hiking. Hiking, cycling trails (including the final fragment of the Polish section of the Central Roztocze Bicycle Trail) and marked out educational paths can be helpful in hiking.

Skierbieszowski Landscape Park

Landscape values and unique landform were the main causes of establishing in 1995 Skierbieszowski Landscape Park. Apart from lowland landscape of wide Wolica and Wojsławka river valleys, upland landscape prevails here, which, in some parts, has submontane features. Działy Grabowieckie region, which includes the Park, is the highest part of the Lublin Upland – the hills rise up to 311m above sea level and reach about 100m of relative height. Hill ranges in the area of the Park are divided by two wide valleys of the Wieprz river’s tributaries – Wolica and Wojsławka rivers. There are also water reservoirs – fishponds and storage reservoirs.

The Park has interesting vegetation. Forests cover a small part of Skierbieszowski Landscape Park – just 20%. They are not consistent forest complexes and create mid-field “islands”. A very important species in the stands is beech, which dense range is its north-eastern border. Other species included in the forests’ stand are: hornbeam, lime, elm, sycamore and pine. On the hills’ slopes there are some areas of Euro-Siberian steppic woods with Quercus, and gullies are covered with wet oak-hornbeam and riparian forests with ash, alder, maple and sycamore.

Sunny slopes of hills and gullies as well as balks and berms are covered with thermophilic vegetation, growing on loess bed, rich in unusual steppe species including: dwarf cherry (Prunus fruticosa), French rose (Rosa gallica) and Iris aphylla placed in Polish Redbook of Plants. Steppe vegetation also includes: snowdrop anemone (Anemone sylvestris), pheasant's eye (Adonis vernalis), Scorzonera purpura, Cirsium pannonicum, field cow-wheat (Melampyrum arvense), Scabiosa ochroleuca, milkvetch (Astragalus onobrychis, Astragalus danicus), Actaea europaea, Inula ensifolia, European Michaelmas daisy (Aster amellus), erect clematis (Clematis recta) and oregano (Origanum vulgare). In the forest groundcover numerous mountain species can be found: hard shield fern (Polystichum aculeatum), Cardamine glanduligera, Veronica montana, goat’s beard (Aruncus dioicus) and Huperzia selago. Among plants, which habitats can be found in Skierbieszowski Landscape Park, the most important are: big-flowered foxglove (Digitalis grandiflora), common ivy (Hedera helix) and orchids: lady's-slipper orchid (Cypripedium calceolus), lady orchid (Orchis purpura), bird's-nest orchid (Neottia nidus-avis), lesser butterfly-orchid (Platanthera biforia), greater butterfly-orchid (Platanthera chlorantha) as well as helleborines (Epipactis).

Among forest avifauna worth mentioning are: black stork (Cicionia nigra), eagle owl (Bubo bubo), Ural owl (Strix uralensis), Asio otus, middle-spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos medius) and flycatchers: red-breasted and collared (Ficedula parva, Ficedula albicollis). Avifauna of meadows and fields is represented by: western marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus), lapwing (Vanellus vanellus), corncrake (Crex crex), black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) as well as partridges (Perdix perdix) and quails (Coturnix coturnix). In mid-field bushes you can find red-backed shrikes (Lanius collurio), great grey shrikes (Lanius excubitor) and in tall church buildings  - barn owl with a secretive way of life. Few water areas in Skierbieszowski Landscape Park are places, where following species occur: great crested grebe (Podiceps cristatus), little grebe (Tachybaptus ruficollis), moorhen (Gallinula chloropus), black tern (Chlidonias niger), bittern (Botaurus stellaris) and Savi’s warbler (Locustella luscinioides).

In Skierbieszowski Landscape Park there are many valuable monuments. Among sacral architecture worth mentioning is late-renaissance church in Bończa, rebuit from Calvinistic church and churches in Skierbieszów, Surhów and Orłów Murowany. Tourists can be interested in palace-park complexes in Surhów, Orłów Murowany, Stryjów, Kalinówka, Bończa and Łaziska, manor park in Hajowniki, inn in Krasiczyn, tavern in Czajki, monumental architecture complexes in Brzeziny village and gords in Skierbieszów and Wiszenki as well as ruins of knight castle in Orłów Murowany.

There are marked walking trails in the Park: “Działy Grabowieckie Trail” “Ariański Trail”, “Tadeusz Kościuszko Trail” and priest “Stefan Wyszyński Trail”. There is also marked educational path - “Stryjowskie Wawozy”, with elements of nature and history, for walking and biking and Skierbieszów Biking Trail.

Sobiborski Landscape Park

Sobiborski Landscape Park was established in 1983. Its aim is to protect the most valuable parts of the nature in the eastern part of Pojezierze Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie region. A characteristic feature of this area are vast plains covered with forests, among which there are mid-forest lakes and peat bogs. The most valuable fragments are protected as six nature reserves.

Sobiborski Landscape Park is a typical forest park - forests occupy 75% of its area. They are mainly pine forests, varied in terms of habitat conditions. Depending on the moisture content of the soil we can find dry, fresh, humid and marshy coniferous forests. An exception to the silvan habitats, where the pine is in minority, is the birch bog forest, where the common white birch and the black alder dominate. Oak-hornbeam forests occupy a small area, larger pieces are found only in the southern part of the Park.

The waters occupy 2% of the park's surface and include: the Tarasienka river and seven, hardly accessible lakes (because of surrounding peat bogs and marshy forests). The most valuable natural elements of the Park's flora are peat bogs. You can find all three types of peat bogs here: low, transitional and high. The majority of boreal species are grouped in these areas, including: Lapland and whortleberry willows (Salix lapponum, Salix myrtilloides), shrubby birch (Betula humilis Schrank), great sundew (Drosera anglica Huds), lousewort (Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum), white beak-sedge (Rhynchospora alba), pod grass (Scheuchzeria palustris). Atlantic species include: long-leaved sundew (Drosera intermedia), Najas flexilis, trailing St John's wort (Hypericum humifusum), The vegetation associated with lakes and peat bogs is also rich. There are Nymphaea candida, yellow waterlilies (Nuphar lutea), water soldier (Stratiotes aloides). A small area is occupied by thermophilic sandy grasslands on which protected sand pinks (Dianthus arenarius) and Lithuanian catchfly (Silene lithuanica) can be found.

A small degree of environmental transformation, hardly accessible area and a large diversity of habitat conditions determine the fauna richness of the park. As a result of the large diversity of habitats in Lasy Sobiborskie, species-rich fauna developed. Among the invertebrates there are rare species of butterflies: marsh fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia), Old World swallowtail (Papilio machaon), lesser purple emperor (Apatura ilia), purple emperor (Apatura iris), scarce large blue (Phengaris teleius) and dusky large blue (Phengaris nausithous), whose presence testifies to the naturalness of forest and peat ecosystems. In addition, a large population of crayfish was found in Lake Płotycze, which proves the high purity of this water reservoir. As a result of the large number of lakes and watercourses in the area of the Park, we can observe quite a large ichtiofauna. Noteworthy is the presence of the swamp minnow (Rhynchocypris percnurus) in the Tarasienka river - the species found on the IUCN Red List. Wet areas, numerous water reservoirs are a convenient place for living amphibians. The rarest, found in the Park include northern crested newt (Triturus cristatus), natterjack toad (Epidalea calamita), and European green toad (Bufotes viridis). In the Park’s avifauna there are species under zonal protection: black stork (Ciconia nigra) and eagle owl (Bubo bubo). Among the falconiformes there are: white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) and lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina). Other rare species of birds that can be found in Lasy Sobiborskie are: bittern (Botaurus stellaris), hazel grouse (Bonasa bonasia), stock dove (Columba oenas), Tengmalm’s owl (Aegolius funereus) (second finding in Lublin region), nightjar (Caprimulgus europaeus) white-backed woodpecker (Dendrocopos leucotos), black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius), great grey shrike (Lanius excubitor) collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis), red-breasted flycatcher (Ficedula parva), bluethroat (Luscinia svecica), hoopoe (Upupa epops) and crane (Grus). One of the most important observations is the finding (2010) of a new breeding species for Poland and Lublin region – great grey owl (Strix nebulosa).

There are rare species of bats in Lasy Sobiborskie: Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii), particoloured bat (Vespertilio murinus), pond bat (Myotis dasycneme) and rodents: northern birch mouse (Sicista betulina) and fat dormouse (Glis glis). Mammals in the forest district include: otter (Lutra), beaver (Castor) and wolf (Canis lupus). Particularly noteworthy is the presence of a wolf, whose occurrence is the evidence of the local forests’ small transformation and low anthropogenic pressure.

Among the reptiles, European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) deserves special attention. It is a threatened species, in the scale of Europe, registered in The Red Book of Endangered and Vulnerable Animals in Poland as a species in danger of extinction. In Sobiborski Landscape Park there is its largest documented population, which includes about 500 individuals. The European pond turtle is found in small water reservoirs, lakes, ponds and small peat excavations. At the turn of May and June, adult females leave the water reservoirs to lay eggs in the hollows dug by them on sandy glades. The incubation period lasts about 3 months. Young turtles, after leaving the nests, wander to the water reservoirs. A turtle protection program is undertaken in the Park, consisting of the active protection of breeding grounds.

The area where Sobiborski Landscape Park is currently located was once more populated to a larger extent than at present and it was an area with a complex ethnic structure. It was inhabited by Poles, Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Jews and Germans. Unfortunately, this colourful ethnic mixture was seriously impoverished as a result of World War II and post-war displacements.

The current villages have preserved the former layout and distribution of dwellings, and in the housing, as before the war, wooden cottages dominate, with well-preserved well cranes accompanying them here and there. Wooden rural housing can be admired in Sobibór, Żłobek Duży, Żłobek Mały, Macoszyn, Osowa, Stulna, Kosyń and Zbereż. At the intersection of roads or in places commemorating local events, there are chapels and roadside crosses. The number of these objects shows the deep faith of the former, but also the current inhabitants of these areas. The tragic memorial of World War II is the place near Sobibór, by the railway line from Chełm to Włodawa, where the German extermination camp functioned. About 250,000 people lost their lives in it - mainly Jews from Poland, Russia, Germany and the Netherlands. On October 14, 1943, a revolt led by the Soviet officer Alexander Peczerski broke out in the camp. As a result of the rebellion, around 300 prisoners escaped from the camp. After the armed rebellion of the prisoners, the Germans decided to liquidate the camp.

Exceptional natural and landscape values have influenced the inclusion of Sobiborski Landscape Park to the tripartite, International Biosphere Reserve "Polesie Zachodnie ".The IBR consists of Poleski National Park and three landscape parks on the Polish side: Poleski, Sobiborski and Pojezierze Łęczyńskie Landscape Parks, as well as Poleski Protected Landscape Area. On the Ukrainian side, the IBR consists of Szacki National Park, while on the Belarussian side, the Biosphere Reserve of Polesie Nadbużańskie. The main purpose of the reserve is to protect biodiversity and landscape in the spirit of sustainable development.

Sobiborski Landscape Park and its surroundings are areas with excellent conditions for tourism. For amateurs of qualified tourism, both hiking and cycling, it is worth recommending numerous trails leading to the forest backwoods and the educational path "Stulno". Tourists - canoeists can successfully participate in kayaking trips organized on the Bug river.

Strzelecki Landscape Park

Strzelecki Landscape Park was established in 1983. The park protects a compact complex of Las Strzelecki along with a part of the Bug river valley. It is characterized by a flat landform, with small hills. The most significant landform is the extensive Bug river valley. The riverbed is indented to a depth of up to 5 m. The Bug is a river that has preserved its natural character. It creates numerous bends and oxbow lakes called “bużyska”.

The vast majority of Strzelecki Landscape Park’s area is occupied by forests. They form a compact forest complex, divided only in the southern part by picturesque meadows in the Ubrodownica river valley. Among the forest habitat types, the largest area is covered by fresh forest, mixed fresh forest and wet forest. The stand is dominated by: pedunculate oak, pine and hornbeam. As admixtures there are: birch, sycamore, aspen, ash, small-leaved lime, black alder. Most stands are characterized by multi-species and multi-storey composition. The dominant community is the subcontinental Galio-Carpinetum oak-hornbeam forests in the Volhynia variety. Plants occurring in the forest are: yellow lady’s slipper (Cypripedium calceolus), white helleborine (Cephalanthera damasonium), red helleborine (Cephalanthera rubra), Gladiolus imbricatus, big flowered foxglove (Digitalis grandiflora), goat’s beard (Aruncus dioicus), martagon (Lilium martagon), European columbine (Aquilegia vulgaris).

The forest is characterized by the occurrence of so-called of “matczańska” pine, which is a local ecotype of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris) and is characterized by a roof-shaped bark. “Matczańska” pine is found at numerous sites in one of the two Park’s reserves - in the "Liski" forest reserve. In addition, the reserve protects oak and pine stands on oak-hornbeam habitats that reach the dimensions of monumental trees. There are protected species of plants: broad-leaved helleborine (Epipactis helleborine), bird's-nest orchid (Neottia nidus-avis), lesser butterfly-orchid (Platanthera bifolia), twayblade (Listera ovata), lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor).

Meadows of Strzelecki Landscape Park were created mainly as a result of river valleys’ deforestation. Floristically rich hay meadows dominate among them. We can find many meadow plants: globe-flower (Trollius europaeus) , large pink (Dianthus superbus), round-headed rampion (Phyteuma orbiculare), saxifrage (Saxifraga granulate), mouse garlic (Allium angulosum), marsh angelica (Angelica palustris), Succisella inflexa (Kluk), perennial peavine (Lathyrus latifolius) - very rare, only a few sites in the country.

Thanks to its natural character Strzelecki Landscape Park is a refuge of many species of animals. The most-visible is the avifauna of this area. It is noteworthy that in Lasy Strzeleckie, there is one of the largest breeding sites in Poland of: lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina), buzzard (Buteo buteo), honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus), sparrow hawk (Accipiter nisus) and middle spotted woodpecker (Dendrocopos medius). To protect the breeding sites of lesser spotted eagle - the Park's coat of crest species, the fauna reserve “Siedliszcze” was established.

Strzelecki Landscape Park is one of ten most important breeding sites in the country for the collared flycatcher (Ficedula albicollis), which reaches the northern range of distribution. Forests are breeding sites for, among others, black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius), hazel grouse (Tetrastes bonasia), red-breasted flycatcher (Ficedula parva) and for the zone-protected black stork (Ciconia nigra). Park’s avifauna is represented not only by forest birds, but also by birds inhabiting sandy slopes along the Bug river: sand martin (Riparia riparia) and kingfisher (Alcedo atthis), birds associated with meadows: western marsh harrier (Circus aeruginosus) and Montagu’s harrier (Circus pygargus) and birds inhabiting the edges of rivers and bushes: Eurasian penduline (Remiz pendulinus) and river warbler (Locustella fluviatilis). In Matcze and Skryhiczyn villages we can find colonies of white stork (Ciconia ciconia).

In the mid-forest wetlands and ponds of Lasy Strzeleckie, we can find one of the rarest reptiles - European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis) - a threatened species, in the scale of Europe. It should be noted that in Lasy Strzeleckie there is one of the largest in the country butterfly populations of scarce fritillary (Euphydryas maturna), whose occurrence is associated with the presence of wet forests and wet meadows. Eggs are laid on the leaves of European ash. Caterpillars feed on ash until autumn, while winter in leaf litter. Among the mammals of the Park, we can find beavers (Castor), otters (Lutra) and bats, among others: Bechstein's bat (Myotis bechsteinii) and barbastelle (Barbastella barbastellus).

Before World War II, Lasy Strzeleckie were the property of the Zamoyski family. In their center, in Maziarnia Strzelecka, the Zamoyski family’s hunting lodge from the early 20th century has been preserved. During World War II, Lasy Strzeleckie were a place of refuge for the partisans. The village located on the Bug River - Skryhiczyn is also worth seeing. There is the monument survived from the nineteenth century exhibited by Wilhelm Bergeman in the place of the tragic death of his daughter killed by lightning. In the buffer zone of the Park, in Kopyłów and Stefankowice villages, there are manor complexes with historic parks from the 19th century. In addition, there are very interesting villages near Strzelecki Landscape Park: Dubienka and Horodło. In both localities, old urban layouts have been preserved. At Dubienka, there is a mound commemorating the battle of the Kościuszko Insurrection in 1792, and in Horodło - a mound commemorating the Horodel Union in 1413, the church and baroque Dominican monastery, as well as a large gord on the Bug river.

Two marked hiking trails and the Nadbużański Bicycle Trail run through the Park.

 

Szczebrzeszyński Landscape Park

Established in 1991, Szczebrzeszyński Landscape Park is an exceptionally picturesque part of Roztocze Zachodnie region. A characteristic feature of this area are numerous loess gullies, diversifying the landscape of undulate fields and forest areas. The average density of gullies in the Park is 3 km/km2. The gullies network "Piekiełko", located between Szczebrzeszyn and Wywłoczka, is one of the largest and most beautiful in Poland. The slopes of the gullies here reach a height of several meters, while the width of their beds ranges from several dozen centimeters to 20 meters. The labyrinths of the gullies stretch for kilometers and captivate with their beauty.

The most valuable forest communities are: Carpathian beech forest, growing on slopes of hills and deep ravines, and fir forest, occurring in the lower parts of slopes and in depressions between hills. The sunny slopes of hills and gullies are covered with the xerothermic plant communities. Their largest areas are near Zakłodzie, Kawęczynek and southwest of Szczebrzeszyn. High peat bog in Bagno Tałanda (Tałanda Swamp) is also interesting because of elfine cedar (Pinus pumila) and downy birch (Betula pubescens).

In the area of the Park there are numerous thermophilic plants, among which there are many species of rare plants, such as: Chamaecytisus ruthenicus, European bugbane (Cimicifuga foetida), snowdrop anemone (Anemone sylvestris), lungwort (Pulmonaria mollis Wulfen), Campanula sibirica, Thalictrum minus, Thesium linophyllon, meadow sage (Salvia pratensis), Erect Clematis (Clematis recta), Trifolium pratense, and tor-grass (Brachypodium pinnatum). This group also includes mountain species: hard shield fern (Polystichum aculeatum), Polystichum braunii, Asplenium trichomanes Stachys alpina, Cardamine glanduligera and sticky sage (Salvia glutinosa). Greater stitchwort (Stellaria holostea), Kashubian buttercup (Ranunculus cassubicus), woodruff (Galium odoratum), hairy wood-rush (Luzula pilosa) and Chamaecytisus albus are examples of interesting forest plants in Szczebrzeszyński Landscape Park. In the group of peat plants, there are, among others: swamp willow (Salix myrtilloides), bog-rosemary (Andromeda polifolia), beak-sedges (Rhynchospora) round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia) and hare's-tail cottongrass (Eriophorum vaginatum).

The dominant species of avifauna in the Park are: hawk (Accipiter gentilis), sparrowhawk (Accipiter nisus), raven (Corvus corax), bullfinch (Pyrrhula pyrrhula), stonechat (Saxicola rubicola) and firecrest (Regulus ignicapilla). You can also meet the largest woodpecker found in Poland - black woodpecker (Dryocopus martius), and other hollow birds such as stock dove (Columba oenas) and European pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca). Inhabitants of swampy, extensively used meadows are, among others: common redshank (Tringa totanus), black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa). Tawny owl (Strix aluco) and barn owl (Tyto alba), represent the night birds of the Park.

An interesting group of invertebrates, occurring near Szczebrzeszyn, are millipedes, especially their mountain species. There are no nature reserves within the Park borders, only natural monuments, the most interesting of which are: a few-hundred-year-old lime tree in Szperówka and springs in the Por river valley in Zaporze.

The most valuable historical complex is located in Szczebrzeszyn and the surrounding area. There you can admire medieval urban layout, the ruins of the castle from the 16th century, a group of valuable sixteenth-century sacral buildings: a parish church, a Dominican church and monastery, an Orthodox church and a synagogue, several dozen houses from the 18th and 19th centuries and a large palace complex of the Zamoyski family with a huge park in Klemensów. In Radecznica, there is a historic 17th-century church and the Bernardine monastery, which is the center of St. Anthony worship and is the place where the pilgrimages of are heading. In Sąsiadka there is a gord, which used to be one of the former Grody Czerwieńskie. Wooden cottages from the early twentieth century in Roztocze style are also noteworthy, the most of which have been preserved in Lipowiec. A valuable complex of monuments is located in Zwierzyniec, located at the edge of the Park. The historic spatial layout from the 16th century, the baroque "Church on the Water" (18th century) and a complex of buildings of the Zamoyski Family Fee Tail former administration (XVIII - XIX century) have been preserved here.

Hiking trails and the Roztocze Central Cycling Trail run through the Park.

Wrzelowiecki Landscape Park

Wrzelowiecki Landscape Park established in 1990, is located in the central-western part of the Lublin Upland. This area is characterized by an extremely varied terrain, which is formed by steep edges of the Vistula river valley and numerous impressive loess gullies, dry valleys, karst or suffosion depressions with no outflow, as well as sandy dunes and denudation plains.

An important element of the Park's landscape is the former quarry located south of Piotrawin village, where one of the largest and most beautiful geological profiles in Europe is revealed, showing carbonate rocks rich in fossils from the end of the Cretaceous period. It is also a great viewpoint for the extensive panorama of the river valley and its wild riverbed with sandbanks - islands. On one of the Vistula islands, near Kaliszany, ornithological camps are held every year, the aim of which is to study bird migration along the Vistula valley in the autumn.

Less than 40% of the Park's area is covered by forests with a significant proportion of old trees, having a character similar to natural. Larger forest complexes occur along the Wrzelowiecki Potok river valley, flowing through the central area of the Park. Near Kluczkowice, Franciszków and in the southern part of the Park, we will find multi-species mixed forests with a predominance of pine and oak and hornbeam forest with mainly hornbeam and oak.

Orchards and fruit plantations predominate in the Park's landscape. This area is characterized by fertile soil and extremely mild climate. Orchards look very charming during the flowering season.

The sunlit slopes of the gullies and the Vistula embankment are the occurrence place of interesting communities of steppe and thermophilic vegetation. A particularly interesting community of this type is located on the escarpment, near Kaliszany.

The most interesting species of plants found in the Park include mountain species: Aconitum variegatum, Aconitum moldavicum, hard shield fern (Polystichum aculeatum), Veratrum lobelianum and Petasites albus, forest plants: daphne mezereum, martagon lily (Lilium martagon), goat’s beard (Aruncus dioicus), common ivy (Hedera helix), lesser periwinkle (Vinca minor), big-flowered foxglove (Digitalis grandiflora), sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata), lesser butterfly-orchid (Platanthera bifolia) and bird's-nest orchid, (Neottia nidus-avis), steppe species: dwarf cherry (Prunus fruticosa), pheasant's eye (Adonis vernalis), Inula ensifolia, golden flax (Linum flavum), European bugbane (Cimicifuga foetida), erect clematis (Clematis recta), and sand habitat species - Dianthus arenarius.

Among the xerothermic grasslands fauna, you can find extremely rare invertebrates species, poorly studied so far. The most interesting species of forest animals include the hazel dormouse (Muscardinus avellanarius), badger (Meles) and weasel (Mustela). Water birds, nesting on the ponds in Kluczkowice, represent, among others red-necked grebe (Podiceps grisegena) and common moorhen (Gallinula chloropus). On the arable fields you can hear quail (Coturnix coturnix) - more and more rarer in Poland. There are currently no nature reserves in the Park, it is planned to create two forest and landscape reserves in order to protect gullies in areas overgrown with oak-hornbeam forests. The most valuable dendrological species in the palace park in Kluczkowice and a group of old oaks in Wrzelowiec are protected as nature monuments.

Wrzelowiecki Landscape Park is characterized by great cultural values. The most valuable monuments include: the gothic church in Piotrawin from the fifteenth century associated with the famous legend about the tomb Peter (Piotrowin) Strzemieńczyk, baroque church and Bernardine monastery in Józefów from the eighteenth century, also an eighteenth-century church in Wrzelowiec, palace and park complexes in Kluczkowice from the 19th century and in Józefów from the beginning of the 20th century, a manor park in Kamień, with beautiful old trees. In the villages, in the area of the Park, there are still many monuments of rural wooden architecture, including Kluczkowice and Wrzelowiec.

There is a marked, blue tourist trail through the Park, on the section Kamień - Piotrawin - Józefów. In the buffer zone, near Chruślina, the educational path "Złota Góra" (4 km) was marked out. The park also has a marked trail from Kazimierz Dolny to Kraśnik and a local bicycle trail from Piotrawin to Skrzynica. The Vistula river on the section adjacent to the Park is an attractive waterway.

Education and Museum Center in Brzeźno

The Educational and Museum Center in Brzeźno was established in 1997 as a result of the project "Protection of Chełm Calcareous Marshes" carried out by contemporary Board of Chełm Landscape Parks. Since June 2015, the Center has been operating as a separate part of the Lublin Landscape Parks Unit and is open all year, from Monday to Friday, from 7:30 to 15:30.

The center is located in Brzeźno (Dorohusk municipality) in the Chełm Landscape Protected Area, near the "Brzeźno" peat reserve - one of the three peat bogs located in the Chełm Landscape Park, unique in Europe. The area owes its unique character to the occurrence of a mosaic of peat and xerothermic ecosystems created on a chalk substrate. The value of these areas is additionally confirmed by occuring several forms of nature protection: a reserve, a landscape park and Natura 2000 areas: a special habitat protection area "Torfowiska Chełmskie" (Chełm Marshes) and a special bird protection area "Chełmskie Torfowiska Węglanowe" (Chełm Calcareous Marshes).

Visiting these areas you can find many species of rare and protected plants and animals. For many of them, this area is the only place of occurrence in Poland. Over 550 species of vascular plants have been noted here, of which over 40 are under legal protection. The largest number of plants under strict protection grows in meadows and chalk elevations called "grądziki".

Only here, next to each other, we can meet plants of wet meadows and peat bogs, such as: saw-sedge (Cladium mariscus), Siberian iris (Iris sibirica), globe-flower (Trollius europaeus), lousewort (Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum), 12 species of orchids and xerothermic grass plants, such as: Senecio macrophyllus golden flax (Linum flavum), Inula ensifolia or snowdrop anemone (Anemone sylvestris).

The animal world, especially of birds and butterflies, is also extremely rich. You can meet up to 150 species of birds, including over 70 breeding birds. In the bog areas and adjacent wet meadows, you can hear and see: Aquatic warbler (Acrocephalus paludicola) and corncrake (Crex crex) (threatened with extinction in the world scale), great-snipe (Gallinago media), black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa) common snipe (Gallinago gallinago), and Montagu's harrier (circus pygargus). In the forests of the Chełm Landscape Park adjacent to the peat bogs, you can meet the eagle owl (Bubo bubo), the lesser spotted eagle (Clanga pomarina) and the black stork (Ciconia nogra).

The mosaic of habitats fosters the occurrence of nearly 800 species of butterflies, some of which, such as false ringlet (Coenonympha oedippus), has here one of the last habitats in Poland. Other protected species are also noteworthy: swallowtail butterfly (Papilio machaon), purple emperor (Apatura iris) and marsh fritillary (Euphydryas aurinia), scarce large blue (Phengaris teleius) and dusky large blue (Phengaris nausithous).

The Educational and Museum Center in Brzeźno is the node of the surrounding tourist network. The nature trail “Motylowe łąki” (Butterfly Meadows) runs through “Brzeźno” reserve and the PTTK blue walking trail "Szlak Bagien i Moczarów" – through the Center. The tourist infrastructure is associated with these trails: an observation tower, an observation deck on the bog, numerous information boards, educational boards and wooden benches. In the Center itself there is a pond, a place for a bonfire under a covered shelter with benches and tables, a regional well, 2 beehives for beekeeping plants and a rebate of honey plants with numerous houses for insects. In the Center's building itself there is a permanent exhibition of children's artworks and a museum exhibition with eagle owl, lesser spotted eagle, white-tailed eagle, black stork, bull-of-the-bog, otter and beaver.

The educational offer of the Education and Museum Center includes lectures and nature contests carried out at schools, workshops and field activities in the Center and on educational paths as well as trips around Lublin's landscape parks. All educational activities are conducted free of charge. The current educational offer can be found on the website of the Lublin Landscape Parks Unit: www.parki.lubelskie.pl.

Further information:

Educational and Museum Center in Brzeźno Office

Brzeźno 163

22 - 174 Brzeźno

phone: 501 850 618

email: brzezno.zlpk@lubelskie.pl

Ecological Education Center in Sobieszyn